How Sugar Affects Your Health – 146 Ways
This list of 146 way sugar affects our health – all detrimental – was compiled by Nancy Appleton, PhD from medical journals and other scientific publications. Dr Appleton is a clinical nutritionist and researcher. She is the author of several books, including Lick The Sugar Habit, Stopping Inflammation: Relieving the Cause of Degenerative Diseases, and Suicide by Sugar: A Startling Look at Our #1 National Addiction. Her website is www.nancyappleton.com 1. Sugar can suppress the immune system. 2. Sugar upsets the mineral relationships in the body. 3. Sugar can cause hyperactivity, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and crankiness in children. 4. Sugar can produce a significant rise in triglycerides. 5. Sugar contributes to the reduction in defense against bacterial infection (infectious diseases). 6. Sugar causes a loss of tissue elasticity and function, the more sugar you eat the more elasticity and function you loose. 7. Sugar reduces high density lipoproteins. 8. Sugar leads to chromium deficiency. 9 Sugar leads to cancer of the ovaries. 10. Sugar can increase fasting levels of glucose. 11. Sugar causes copper deficiency. 12. Sugar interferes with absorption of calcium and magnesium. 13. Sugar can weaken eyesight. 14. Sugar raises the level of a neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. 15. Sugar can cause hypoglycemia. 16. Sugar can produce an acidic digestive tract. 17. Sugar can cause a rapid rise of adrenaline levels in children. 18. Sugar malabsorption is frequent in patients with functional bowel disease. 19. Sugar can cause premature aging. 20. Sugar can lead to alcoholism. 21. Sugar can cause tooth decay. 22. Sugar contributes to obesity 23. High intake of sugar increases the risk of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. 24. Sugar can cause changes frequently found in person with gastric or duodenal ulcers. 25. Sugar can cause arthritis. 26. Sugar can cause asthma. 27. Sugar greatly assists the uncontrolled growth of Candida Albicans (yeast infections). 28. Sugar can cause gallstones. 29. Sugar can cause heart disease. 30. Sugar can cause appendicitis. 31. Sugar can cause multiple sclerosis. 32. Sugar can cause hemorrhoids. 33. Sugar can cause varicose veins. 34. Sugar can elevate glucose and insulin responses in oral contraceptive users. 35. Sugar can lead to periodontal disease. 36. Sugar can contribute to osteoporosis. 37. Sugar contributes to saliva acidity. 38. Sugar can cause a decrease in insulin sensitivity. 39. Sugar can lower the amount of Vitamin E (alpha-Tocopherol in the blood. 40. Sugar can decrease growth hormone. 41. Sugar can increase cholesterol. 42. Sugar can increase the systolic blood pressure. 43. Sugar can cause drowsiness and decreased activity in children. 44. High sugar intake increases advanced glycation end products (AGEs)(Sugar bound non-enzymatically to protein) 45. Sugar can interfere with the absorption of protein. 46. Sugar causes food allergies. 47. Sugar can contribute to diabetes. 48. Sugar can cause toxemia during pregnancy. 49. Sugar can contribute to eczema in children. 50. Sugar can cause cardiovascular disease. 51. Sugar can impair the structure of DNA 52. Sugar can change the structure of protein. 53. Sugar can make our skin age by changing the structure of collagen. 54. Sugar can cause cataracts. 55. Sugar can cause emphysema. 56. Sugar can cause atherosclerosis. 57. Sugar can promote an elevation of low density lipoproteins (LDL). 58. High sugar intake can impair the physiological homeostasis of many systems in the body. 59. Sugar lowers the enzymes ability to function. 60. Sugar intake is higher in people with Parkinson’s disease. 61. Sugar can cause a permanent altering the way the proteins act in the body. 62. Sugar can increase the size of the liver by making the liver cells divide. 63. Sugar can increase the amount of liver fat. 64. Sugar can increase kidney size and produce pathological changes in the kidney. 65. Sugar can damage the pancreas. 66. Sugar can increase the body’s fluid retention. 67. Sugar is enemy #1 of the bowel movement. 68. Sugar can cause myopia (nearsightedness). 69. Sugar can compromise the lining of the capillaries. 70. Sugar can make the tendons more brittle. 71. Sugar can cause headaches, including migraine. 72. Sugar plays a role in pancreatic cancer in women. 73. Sugar can adversely affect school children’s grades and cause learning disorders.. 74. Sugar can cause an increase in delta, alpha, and theta brain waves. 75. Sugar can cause depression. 76. Sugar increases the risk of gastric cancer. 77. Sugar and cause dyspepsia (indigestion). 78. Sugar can increase your risk of getting gout. 79. Sugar can increase the levels of glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test over the ingestion of complex carbohydrates. 80. Sugar can increase the insulin responses in humans consuming high-sugar diets compared to low sugar diets. 81 High refined sugar diet reduces learning capacity. 82. Sugar can cause less effective functioning of two blood proteins, albumin, and lipoproteins, which may reduce the body’s ability to handle fat and cholesterol. 83. Sugar can contribute to Alzheimer’s disease. 84. Sugar can cause platelet adhesiveness. 85. Sugar can cause hormonal imbalance; some hormones become underactive and others become overactive. 86. Sugar can lead to the formation of kidney stones. 87. Sugar can lead to the hypothalamus to become highly sensitive to a large variety of stimuli. 88. Sugar can lead to dizziness. 89. Diets high in sugar can cause free radicals and oxidative stress. 90. High sucrose diets of subjects with peripheral vascular disease significantly increases platelet adhesion. 91. High sugar diet can lead to biliary tract cancer. 92. Sugar feeds cancer. 93. High sugar consumption of pregnant adolescents is associated with a twofold increased risk for delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant. 94. High sugar consumption can lead to substantial decrease in gestation duration among adolescents. 95. Sugar slows food’s travel time through the gastrointestinal tract. 96. Sugar increases the concentration of bile acids in stools and bacterial enzymes in the colon. This can modify bile to produce cancer-causing compounds and colon cancer. 97. Sugar increases estradiol (the most potent form of naturally occurring estrogen) in men. 98. Sugar combines and destroys phosphatase, an enzyme, which makes the process of digestion more difficult. 99. Sugar can be a risk factor of gallbladder cancer. 100. Sugar is an addictive substance. 101. Sugar can be intoxicating, similar to alcohol. 102. Sugar can exacerbate PMS. 103. Sugar given to premature babies can affect the amount of carbon dioxide they produce. 104. Decrease in sugar intake can increase emotional stability. 105. The body changes sugar into 2 to 5 times more fat in the bloodstream than it does starch. 106. The rapid absorption of sugar promotes excessive food intake in obese subjects. 107. Sugar can worsen the symptoms of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 108. Sugar adversely affects urinary electrolyte composition. 109. Sugar can slow down the ability of the adrenal glands to function. 110. Sugar has the potential of inducing abnormal metabolic processes in a normal healthy individual and to promote chronic degenerative diseases. 111.. IVs (intravenous feedings) of sugar water can cut off oxygen to the brain. 112. High sucrose intake could be an important risk factor in lung cancer. 113. Sugar increases the risk of polio. 114. High sugar intake can cause epileptic seizures. 115. Sugar causes high blood pressure in obese people. 116. In Intensive Care Units, limiting sugar saves lives. 117. Sugar may induce cell death. 118. Sugar can increase the amount of food that you eat. 119. In juvenile rehabilitation camps, when children were put on a low sugar diet, there was a 44% drop in antisocial behavior. 120. Sugar can lead to prostate cancer. 121. Sugar dehydrates newborns. 122. Sugar increases the estradiol in young men. 123. Sugar can cause low birth weight babies. 124. Greater consumption of refined sugar is associated with a worse outcome of schizophrenia 125. Sugar can raise homocysteine levels in the blood stream. 126. Sweet food items increase the risk of breast cancer. 127. Sugar is a risk factor in cancer of the small intestine. 128. Sugar may cause laryngeal cancer. 129. Sugar induces salt and water retention. 130. Sugar may contribute to mild memory loss. 131. As sugar increases in the diet of 10 years olds, there is a linear decrease in the intake of many essential nutrients. 132. Sugar can increase the total amount of food consumed. 133. Exposing a newborn to sugar results in a heightened preference for sucrose relative to water at 6 months and 2 years of age. 134. Sugar causes constipation. 135. Sugar causes varicose veins. 136. Sugar can cause brain decay in prediabetic and diabetic women. 137. Sugar can increase the risk of stomach cancer. 138. Sugar can cause metabolic syndrome. 139. Sugar ingestion by pregnant women increases neural tube defects in embryos. 140. Sugar can be a factor in asthma. 141. The higher the sugar consumption the more chances of getting irritable bowel syndrome. 142. Sugar could affect central reward systems. 143. Sugar can cause cancer of the rectum. 144. Sugar can cause endometrial cancer. 145. Sugar can cause renal (kidney) cell carcinoma. 146. Sugar can cause liver tumors.
Many thanks to Dr Beth Forgosh, of Discover Chiropractic of Soho, for bringing Dr Appleton’s list to my attention. Note added to this post on 12/29/2014:
Suzette Lawrence, MSN, commented that Dr Appleton’s list, above, describes the effects of REFINED sugars: “This is not the case for natural fruits sugars that are attached to the fiber in the fruit, known as levulose … if absorbed it occurs low in the intestines and is converted to glycogen in the liver and stored there as an emergency energy source. I agree that the SAD (Standard American Diet) beginning in infancy sets the stage for every disease, and some new ones. Think, GMO beet sugar … ” From a 2014 article by the Cancer Treatment Centers of America entitled Natural vs. refined sugars – What’s the difference?: Sugar, in all forms, is a simple carbohydrate that the body converts into glucose and uses for energy. But the effect on the body and your overall health depends on the type of sugar you’re eating, either natural or refined. We wanted to explore the difference between these sugar types as a follow-up to our post about whether sugar drives the growth of cancer, which has received several comments. We again turned to Julie Baker, Clinical Oncology Dietitian at our hospital outside Atlanta, for her expertise on the issue. Understanding sugars Natural sugars are found in fruit as fructose and in dairy products, such as milk and cheese, as lactose. Foods with natural sugar have an important role in the diet of cancer patients and anyone trying to prevent cancer because they provide essential nutrients that keep the body healthy and help prevent disease. Refined sugar comes from sugar cane or sugar beets, which are processed to extract the sugar. It is typically found as sucrose, which is the combination of glucose and fructose. We use white and brown sugars to sweeten cakes and cookies, coffee, cereal and even fruit. Food manufacturers add chemically produced sugar, typically high-fructose corn syrup, to foods and beverages, including crackers, flavored yogurt, tomato sauce and salad dressing. Low-fat foods are the worst offenders, as manufacturers use sugar to add flavor. Most of the processed foods we eat add calories and sugar with little nutritional value. In contrast, fruit and unsweetened milk have vitamins and minerals. Milk also has protein and fruit has fiber, both of which keep you feeling full longer. DR APPLETON’S REFERENCES 1. Sanchez, A., et al. Role of Sugars in Human Neutrophilic Phagocytosis, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Nov 1973;261:1180-1184.Bernstein, J., et al. Depression of Lymphocyte Transformation Following Oral Glucose Ingestion. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.1997;30:613. 2. Couzy, F., et al. Nutritional Implications of the Interaction Minerals, Progressive Food and Nutrition Science 17;1933:65-87. 3. Goldman, J., et al. Behavioral Effects of Sucrose on Preschool Children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 1986;14(4):565-577. 4. Scanto, S. and Yudkin, J. The Effect of Dietary Sucrose on Blood Lipids, Serum Insulin, Platelet Adhesiveness and Body Weight in Human Volunteers, Postgraduate Medicine Journal. 1969;45:602-607. 5. Ringsdorf, W., Cheraskin, E. & Ramsay R. Sucrose,Neutrophilic Phagocytosis and Resistance to Disease, Dental Survey. 1976;52(12):46-48. 6. Cerami, A., Vlassara, H., & Brownlee, M. Glucose and Aging. Scientific American. May 1987:90. Lee, A. T. & Cerami, A. The Role of Glycation in Aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 663:63-67. 7. Albrink, M. & Ullrich I. H. Interaction of Dietary Sucrose and Fiber on Serum Lipids in Healthy Young Men Fed High Carbohydrate Diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986;43:419-428. Pamplona, R., et al. Mechanisms of Glycation in Atherogenesis. Medical Hypotheses. Mar 1993;40(3):174-81. 8. Kozlovsky, A., et al. Effects of Diets High in Simple Sugars on Urinary Chromium Losses. Metabolism. June 1986;35:515-518. 9. Takahashi, E., Tohoku University School of Medicine, Holistic Health Digest. October 1982:41. 10. Kelsay, J., et al. Diets High in Glucose or Sucrose and Young Women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1974;27:926-936. Thomas, B. J., et al. Relation of Habitual Diet to Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentration and the Insulin Response to Oral Glucose. Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition. 1983; 36C(1):49_51. 11. Fields, M., et al. Effect of Copper Deficiency on Metabolism and Mortality in Rats Fed Sucrose or Starch Diets, Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1983;113:1335-1345. 12. Lemann, J. Evidence that Glucose Ingestion Inhibits Net Renal Tubular Reabsorption of Calcium and Magnesium. Journal Of Clinical Nutrition. 1976 ;70:236-245. 13. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica. Mar 2002;48;25. Taub, H. Ed. Sugar Weakens Eyesight, VM NEWSLETTER; May 1986:6 14. Sugar, White Flour Withdrawal Produces Chemical Response. The Addiction Letter. Jul 1992:4. 15. Dufty, William. Sugar Blues. (New York:Warner Books, 1975). 16. Ibid. 17. Jones, T. W., et al. Enhanced Adrenomedullary Response and Increased Susceptibility to Neuroglygopenia: Mechanisms Underlying the Adverse Effect of Sugar Ingestion in Children. Journal of Pediatrics. Feb 1995;126:171-7. 18. Ibid. 19. Lee, A. T. & Cerami A. The Role of Glycation in Aging.” Annals of the New York Academy of Science.1992;663:63-70. 20. Abrahamson, E. & Peget, A. Body, Mind and Sugar. (New York:Avon,1977.) 21. Glinsmann, W., Irausquin, H., & Youngmee, K. Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners. F. D. A. Report of Sugars Task Force. 1986:39. Makinen K.K.,et al. A Descriptive Report of the Effects of a 16-month Xylitol Chewing-Gum Programme Subsequent to a 40-Month Sucrose Gum Programme. Caries Research. 1998; 32(2)107-12. Riva Touger-Decker & Cor van Loveren, Sugars and Dental Caries. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Oct 2003; 78:881-892. 22. Keen, H., et al. Nutrient Intake, Adiposity, and Diabetes. British Medical Journal. 1989; 1: 655-658. 23. Tragnone, A. et al. Dietary Habits as Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease. European Journal of Gastroenterological Hepatology. Jan 1995;7(1):47-51. 24. Yudkin, J. Sweet and Dangerous. (New York;Bantam Books:1974), 129. 25. Darlington, L., Ramsey, N. W. & Mansfield, J. R. Placebo_Controlled, Blind Study of Dietary Manipulation Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lancet. Feb 1986;8475(1):236-238. 26. Powers, L. Sensitivity: You React to What You Eat. Los Angeles Times. Feb. 12, 1985. Cheng, J., et al. Preliminary Clinical Study on the Correlation Between Allergic Rhinitis and Food Factors. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi Aug 2002;16(8):393-396. 27. Crook, W. J. The Yeast Connection. (TN:Professional Books, 1984). 28. Heaton, K. The Sweet Road to Gallstones. British Medical Journal. Apr 14, 1984; 288:1103-1104. Misciagna, G., et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;69:120-126. 29. Yudkin, J. Sugar Consumption and Myocardial Infarction. Lancet.Feb 6, 1971;1(7693):296-297. Reiser, S. Effects of Dietary Sugars on Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Heart Disease. Nutritional Health. 1985;203-216. 30. Cleave, T. The Saccharine Disease. (New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1974). 31. Erlander, S. The Cause and Cure of Multiple Sclerosis, The Disease to End Disease. Mar 3, 1979;1(3):59-63. 32. Cleave, T. The Saccharine Disease. (New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1974.) 33. Cleave, T. & Campbell, G. Diabetes, Coronary Thrombosis and the Saccharine Disease. (Bristol, England, John Wrightand Sons, 1960). 34. Behall, K. Influence of Estrogen Content of Oral Contraceptives and Consumption of Sucrose on Blood Parameters. Disease Abstracts International. 1982;431-437. 35. Glinsmann, W., Irausquin, H., & K. Youngmee. Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners. F. D. A. Report of Sugars Task Force. 1986;39:36_38. 36. Tjderhane, L. & Larmas, M. A High Sucrose Diet Decreases the Mechanical Strength of Bones in Growing Rats. Journal of Nutrition. 1998:128:1807-1810. 37. Appleton, N. Healthy Bones. New York: Avery Penguin Putnam,1989. 38. Beck_Nielsen H., Pedersen O., & Schwartz S. Effects of Diet on the Cellular Insulin Binding and the Insulin Sensitivity in Young Healthy Subjects. Diabetes. 1978;15:289-296 . 39. Mohanty P. et al. Glucose Challenge Stimulates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generation by Leucocytes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Aug 2000; 85(8):2970-2973. 40. Gardner, L. & Reiser, S. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate on Fasting Levels of Human Growth Hormone and Cortisol. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1982;169:36-40. 41. Reiser, S. Effects of Dietary Sugars on Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Heart Disease. Nutritional Health. 1985;203:216. 42. Preuss, H. G. Sugar-Induced Blood Pressure Elevations Over the Lifespan of Three Substrains of Wistar Rats. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1998;17(1) 36-37. 43. Behar, D., et al. Sugar Challenge Testing with Children Considered Behaviorally Sugar Reactive. Nutritional Behavior. 1984;1:277-288. 44. Furth, A. & Harding, J. Why Sugar Is Bad For You. New Scientist. Sep 23, 1989;44. 45. Lee AT, & Cerami A. Role of Glycation in Aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. Nov 21,1992 ;663:63-70. 46. Appleton, N. Lick the Sugar Habit. (New York:Avery Penguin Putnam:1988). 47. Sucrose Induces Diabetes in Cats. Federal Protocol. 1974;6(97). 48. Cleave, T. The Saccharine Disease (New Canaan Ct: Keats Publishing, Inc., 1974).131. 49. Ibid. 132. 50. Vaccaro O., Ruth, K. J. & Stamler J. Relationship of Postload Plasma Glucose to Mortality with 19 Year Follow-up. Diabetes Care. Oct 15,1992;10:328-334. Tominaga, M., et al, Impaired Glucose Tolerance Is a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease, but Not Fasting Glucose. Diabetes Care. 1999:2(6):920-924. 51. Lee, A. T. & Cerami, A. Modifications of Proteins and Nucleic Acids by Reducing Sugars: Possible Role in Aging. Handbook of the Biology of Aging. (New York: Academic Press, 1990.). 52. Monnier, V. M. Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process. Journal of Gerontology. 1990:45(4 ):105-110. 53. Dyer, D. G., et al. “=Accumulation of Maillard Reaction Products in Skin Collagen in Diabetes and Aging. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1993:93(6):421-422. 54. Veromann, S.et al. Dietary Sugar and Salt Represent Real Risk Factors for Cataract Development. Ophthalmologica. Jul-Aug 2003 ;217(4):302-307. 55. Monnier, V. M. Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process. Journal of Gerontology. 1990:45(4):105-110. 56. Schmidt A.M. et al. Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products: a mechanism for chronic vascular dysfunction in diabetic vasculopathy and atherosclerosis. Circular Research Archives. 1999 Mar 19;84(5):489-97. 57. Lewis, G. F. and Steiner, G. Acute Effects of Insulin in the Control of VLDL Production in Humans. Implications for Theinsulin-resistant State. Diabetes Care. 1996 Apr;19(4):390-3 R. Pamplona, M. .J., et al. Mechanisms of Glycation in Atherogenesis. Medical Hypotheses. 1990;40:174-181. 58. Ceriello, A. Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Regulation. Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(2 Suppl 1):27-29. 59. Appleton, Nancy. Lick the Sugar Habit. (New York:Avery Penguin Putnam, 1988). 60. Hellenbrand, W. Diet and Parkinson’s Disease. A Possible Role for the Past Intake of Specific Nutrients. Results from a Self-administered Food-frequency Questionnaire in a Case-control Study. Neurology. Sep 1996;47(3):644-650 Cerami, A., Vlassara, H., & Brownlee, M. Glucose and Aging. Scientific American. May 1987: 90. 62. Goulart, F. S. Are You Sugar Smart? American Fitness. Mar-Apr 1991: 34-38. 63. Ibid. 64. Yudkin, J., Kang, S. & Bruckdorfer, K. Effects of High Dietary Sugar. British Journal of Medicine. Nov 22, 1980;1396. 65. Goulart, F. S. Are You Sugar Smart? American Fitness. March_April 1991: 34-38 66. Ibid. 67. Ibid. 68. Ibid. 69. Ibid. 70. Nash, J. Health Contenders. Essence. Jan 1992-23: 79_81. 71. Grand, E. Food Allergies and Migraine. Lancet. 1979:1:955_959. 72. Michaud, D. Dietary Sugar, Glycemic Load, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in a Prospective Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Sep 4, 2002 ;94(17):1293-300. 73. Schauss, A. Diet, Crime and Delinquency. (Berkley Ca; Parker House, 1981). 74. Christensen, L. The Role of Caffeine and Sugar in Depression. Nutrition Report. Mar 1991;9(3):17-24. 75. Ibid. 76. Cornee, J., et al. A Case-control Study of Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Factors in Marseille, France, European Journal of Epidemiology. 1995;11:55-65. 77. Yudkin, J. Sweet and Dangerous.(New York:Bantam Books,1974) 129. 78. Ibid, 44 79. Reiser, S., et al. Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986:43;151-159. 80. Reiser,S., et al. Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986;43:151-159. 81. Molteni, R, et al. A High-fat, Refined Sugar Diet Reduces Hippocampal Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, Neuronal Plasticity, and Learning. NeuroScience. 2002;112(4):803-814. 82. Monnier, V., Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process. Journal of Gerontology. 1990;45:105-111. 83. Frey, J. Is There Sugar in the Alzheimers Disease? Annales De Biologie Clinique. 2001; 59 (3):253-257. 84. Yudkin, J. Metabolic Changes Induced by Sugar in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes. Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1-2):5-8. 85. Ibid. 86. Blacklock, N. J., Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone. Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1-2):9-12. Curhan, G., et al. Beverage Use and Risk for Kidney Stones in Women. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1998:28:534-340. 87. Journal of Advanced Medicine. 1994;7(1):51-58. 88. Ibid. 89. Ceriello, A. Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Regulation. Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(2 Suppl 1):27-29. 90. Postgraduate Medicine. Sept 1969:45:602-07. 91. Moerman, C. J., et al. Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology of Biliary Tract Cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology. Ap 1993;2(2):207-214. 92. Quillin, Patrick, Cancer’s Sweet Tooth. Nutrition Science News. Apr 2000. Rothkopf, M.. Nutrition. July/Aug 1990;6(4). 93. Lenders, C. M. Gestational Age and Infant Size at Birth Are Associated with Dietary Intake among Pregnant Adolescents. Journal of Nutrition. Jun 1997;1113-1117. 94. Ibid. 95. Bostick, R. M., et al. Sugar, Meat and Fat Intake and Non-dietary Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Incidence in Iowa Women. Cancer Causes & Control. 1994:5:38-53. 96. Ibid. Kruis, W., et al. Effects of Diets Low and High in Refined Sugars on Gut Transit, Bile Acid Metabolism and Bacterial Fermentation. Gut. 1991;32:367-370. Ludwig, D. S., et al. High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating, And Obesity. Pediatrics. Mar 1999;103(3):26-32. 97. Yudkin, J. & Eisa, O. Dietary Sucrose and Oestradiol Concentration in Young Men. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 1988:32(2):53-55. 98. Lee, A. T. & Cerami A. The Role of Glycation in Aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 1992; 663:63-70. 99. Moerman, C. et al. Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology of Gallbladder Tract Cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology. Apr 1993; 22(2):207-214. 100. Sugar, White Flour Withdrawal Produces Chemical Response. The Addiction Letter. Jul 1992:4. Colantuoni, C., et al. Evidence That Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake Causes Endogenous Opioid Dependence. Obesity Research. Jun 2002 ;10(6):478-488. 101. Ibid. 102. The Edell Health Letter. Sept 1991;7:1. 103. Sunehag, A. L., et al. Gluconeogenesis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition. Diabetes. 1999 ;48 7991-8000). 104. Christensen L. et al. Impact of A Dietary Change on Emotional Distress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1985;94(4):565-79. 105. Nutrition Health Review. Fall 85. Sugar Changes into Fat Faster than Fat. 106. Ludwig, D. S., et al. High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating and Obesity. Pediatrics. Mar 1999;103(3):26-32. 107. Girardi, N.L. Blunted Catecholamine Responses after Glucose Ingestion in Children with Attention Deficit Disorder. Pediatrics Research. 1995;38:539-542. Berdonces, J. L. Attention Deficit and Infantile Hyperactivity. Rev Enferm. Jan 2001;4(1)11-4 108. Blacklock, N. J. Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone. Nutrition Health. 1987;5(1 & 2):9-17. 109. Lechin, F., et al. Effects of an Oral Glucose Load on Plasma Neurotransmitters in Humans. Neurophychobiology. 1992;26(1-2):4-11. 110. Fields, M. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Aug 1998;17(4):317-321. 11