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  • Writer's pictureJoan Rothchild Hardin

How to Make Your Cat Less Allergenic AND Less Allergic Too

If you're willing to put up with some shredded upholstery and the occasional hair ball, cats make delightful companion animals. Most are affectionate like dogs. Each cat has its own quirky personality. And they don't need to be walked! They're such good pets, it's estimated there are more than 76 million cats living in households across the US.

But what if you, someone in your family or a frequent visitor has a cat allergy and you can't get past the misery they can cause?


People who are allergic to cats often think their fur is the problem - but it’s not. The main trigger is Fel D1, a protein found in the cat's dander (dead skin cells), saliva, urine and also produced by sebaceous glands in their skin. When that protein gets on your skin or lands in your nose, eyes or mouth and you're allergic to it, your immune system sets off one or more misery-causing allergy symptom:

  • Swelling and itching of the eyes and nose

  • Stuffy nose

  • Sneezing

  • Runny nose

  • Postnasal drip

  • Redness of the eyes

  • Coughing

  • Hives

  • Other: sleep disruption, fatigue, itchiness of roof of mouth and throat, irritability - Asthma & Allergy Foundation of America (1) , 2024

Fel D1 at Its Source in Cat Saliva


Information from the Purina Institute:

  • A cat's hair length or color has no influence on the amount of Fel D1 it produces

  • Intact male cats generally produce higher levels of Fel D1 than neutered male cats and female cats whether they've been spayed or not

  • “However, each cat’s level of Fel D1 varies based on genetics, and an intact male cat could potentially produce less Fel d 1 than a high-producing female or sterilized male cat.” (Purina Institute, undated)

The World Health Organization's International Union of Immunological Societies (WHO/IUIS) - Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee has identified 8 cat allergens: Fel D1-8. Of them, Fel D1 accounts for 96% of human cat allergies.

"All cats produce Fel D1, including hypoallergenic cats. The main method of transmission is through a cat's saliva or dander, which adheres to clothing. A 2004 study found that 63% of people allergic to cats had antibodies against Fel D4. (Wikipedia, 2/21/2024)

"The allergic response begins when Fel D1 binds with the immunoglobulin E (IgE) in a sensitized person's body and triggers the allergic response." (Purina Institute (1), Undated)

When you inhale or touch the Fel D1 protein and you have a cat allergy, your body produces antibodies to defend itself. These antibodies then trigger a histamine release from your mast cells. It's the histamines that cause your allergy symptoms.

Mast Cells' Role in Allergic Reactions

Your body doesn't react to the Fel D1 protein if you're not allergic to cats.

The important thing to understand is that Fel D1 isn't actually dangerous. It's only a problem if your gut microbiome, where 80% of the body's immune system resides, isn't working properly.


On the human side, people with allergies - to cats, dust, strawberries or anything else - have an impaired gut microbiome.

That fact was the reason I chose to call my site ALLERGIES AND YOUR GUT when I started it in 2013. Lots of people had told me they, a child or a pet were in great health - except for an allergy or two, clearly not understanding the root cause of their allergies and what was likely to happen to their health over time.

If you've been following this site, you already know that allergies are often an early warning sign that things are amiss in the composition of the allergic person's gut microbiome.



"Allergies are your body’s reaction to a foreign protein. Usually, these proteins (allergens) are harmless. However, if you have an allergy to a particular protein, your body’s defense system (immune system) overreacts to its presence in your body.

"An allergic reaction is the way your body responds to an allergen. If you have allergies, the first time you encounter a specific allergen, your body responds by creating immunoglobulin E (IgE). Your immune system makes antibodies to form IgE."

"IgE antibodies bind to mast cells (allergy cells) that live in your skin, respiratory tract (airways) and the mucus membrane in the hollow organs that connect to each other from your mouth to your anus (gastrointestinal or GI tract).

"The antibodies find the allergens in your body and help remove them by taking them to the mast cell (allergy cell), where they attach to a special receptor. This causes the allergy cell to release histamine. Histamine is what causes your allergy symptoms." (Cleveland Clinic, 2024)

1. IgE antibodies are produced by plasma cells in response to the presence of an allergen. The antibodies attach themselves to mast cells.

2. On subsequent exposure, the IgE antibodies on these mast cells bind to the allergen.

3. IgE-primed mast cells release histamines and other chemicals (degranulation), leading to allergy symptoms.

The five types of antibodies produced in the body as part of the immune system are responsible for keeping us safe from dangerous attacks by pathogens. Each type performs a different function, described below. IgE antibodies are the ones involved with allergic reactions.

"If you have an allergy, your immune system overreacts to an allergen by producing antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE). These antibodies travel to cells that release chemicals, causing an allergic reaction. This reaction usually causes symptoms in the nose, lungs, throat, or on the skin. 

"Each type of IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to cat dander (they only have the IgE antibodies specific to cat dander); while others have allergic reactions to multiple allergens because they have many more types of IgE antibodies." (Asthma & Allergy Foundation of America (2), 2024)

This graphic shows what occurs in a seasonal ragweed pollen allergy (AKA hay fever):



The gut microbiome composition in both children and adults with allergies is different from the gut microbiome composition in those who are allergy free.

  • "The gut microbiota resides in the human gastrointestinal tract, where it plays an important role in maintaining host health. The human gut microbiota is established by the age of 3 years. Studies have revealed that an imbalance in the gut microbiota, termed dysbiosis, occurs due to factors such as cesarean delivery and antibiotic use before the age of 3 years and that dysbiosis is associated with a higher risk of future onset of allergic diseases. Recent advancements in next-generation sequencing methods have revealed the presence of dysbiosis in patients with allergic diseases, which increases attention on the relationship between dysbiosis and the development of allergic diseases. However, there is no unified perspective on the characteristics on dysbiosis or the mechanistic link between dysbiosis and the onset of allergic diseases. Here, we introduce the latest studies on the gut microbiota in children with allergic diseases and present the hypothesis that dysbiosis characterized by fewer butyric acid-producing bacteria leads to fewer regulatory T cells, resulting in allergic disease. Further studies on correcting dysbiosis for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases are warranted. (Akagawa & Kaneko, 2022) 

  • Adult allergic rhinitis sufferers "have a distinct gut microbiome profile, marked by a reduced microbial diversity and altered abundance of certain microbes compared to controls". Species richness was found to be significantly lower in the allergic rhinitis sufferers compared to the allergy free control group. The allergy group had many more Bacteroidetes and Parabacteroides as well as many fewer Firmicutes, Oxalobacter and Clostridiales than the allergy free controls. (Watts et al, 2021)


Human microbiome composition varies by location in the GI tract.

Predominant bacterial generally in the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach,

small intestine and colon are delineated in this figure.

"The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains communities of microbes (bacteria, fungi, viruses) that vary by anatomic location and impact human health. Microbial communities differ in composition based on age, diet, and location in the gastrointestinal tract.

Differences in microbial composition have been associated with chronic disease states. In terms of function, microbial metabolites provide key signals that help maintain healthy human physiology. Alterations of the healthy gastrointestinal microbiome have been linked to the development of various disease states including inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, and colorectal cancer.

"While the definition of a healthy GI microbiome cannot be precisely identified, features of a healthy gut microbiome include relatively greater biodiversity and relative abundances of specific phyla and genera. Microbes with desirable functional profiles for the human host have been identified, in addition to specific metabolic features of the microbiome." (Ruan et al, 2020)


The symptoms of seasonal allergies are actually indications of chronic low level inflammation in the body that is producing an autoimmune response. Taking drugs may suppress these symptoms but does nothing to reduce the chronic inflammation – and actually makes it worse.

Please understand that chronic inflammation in the body makes it more likely you'll develop autoimmune diseases and conditions as you progress through life.

This is my shorthand for how allergies and other autoimmune conditions & diseases develop over time:


Keeping in mind how chronic low level inflammation creates autoimmune problems over time, you can see that a person who was never allergic to cats can seemingly suddenly develop an allergy. I've seen this happen to someone in my family. As he and his imbalanced gut microbiome got older, he became quite allergic to our beloved cats - and in subsequent years developed other allergies, eventually being diagnosed with myasthenia gravis, an awful autoimmune disease in which antibodies destroy communication between the nerves and skeletal muscles, especially those controlling the eyes, mouth, throat and limbs. This autoimmune disorder made his life very hard and put him in a wheel chair for many years before the end of his life.

This graphic shows what can develop down the road if you don't take your allergies as an early warning of bad things to come and do what's needed to stop the chronic low level inflammation your gut microbiome is creating in your body:

For a list of the 100+ diseases currently recognized as autoimmune in origin, see the Autoimmune Association's site. You can explore symptoms, causes, risk factors and treatment options on the site. Many autoimmune diseases occur in clusters so reading about them can increase your understanding of autoimmunity.

As more research is done on the connection between a chronically imbalanced gut microbiome and Alzheimer's, other types of dementia, Type II diabetes and cancers, I think these diseases will also be added to that list. There's already evidence they have an autoimmune component.

Some examples of recent scientific articles on the relationship between chronic inflammation & cancers:

  • "You may have heard that chronic inflammation is tied to the development of some serious diseases, including cancer. But how exactly are the two related, and is there anything you can do to keep chronic inflammation levels low?"... Sometimes inflammation begins and doesn’t stop. "This type of inflammation is called chronic inflammation. Over time it can cause damage to cell DNA and affect the way cells grow and divide. That could lead to the growth of tumors and cancer."   - (Temple University Health system, 2022)

  • "Inflammation is often associated with the development and progression of cancer. The cells responsible for cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance; therefore, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression. In contrast, cancer-intrinsic or cancer-elicited inflammation can be triggered by cancer-initiating mutations and can contribute to malignant progression through the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells. Both extrinsic and intrinsic inflammations can result in immunosuppression, thereby providing a preferred background for tumor development. The current review provides a link between inflammation and cancer development." (Singh, 2022)

 If you're interested in looking into the relationship between chronic inflammation and other diseases not on the Autoimmune Association's list, google "Inflammation + (the name of the disease)" and see what turns up.

There are numerous articles on this site about how to repair a leaky gut to stop chronic low level inflammation from harming your body. Enter gut microbiome, leaky gut or chronic inflammation in the SEARCH box at the top right of the home page and they'll appear.


As with humans, a cat's gut microbiome can be out of balance, allowing allergies to develop. A cat with an allergy can have itchy skin, lose hair, sneeze, cough, snore, get hives and rashes, chew their paws, snore or get ear infections. Sounds a lot like human allergy symptoms!

Excellent graphics from KittyBiome:

Balanced Microbiome vs Imbalance Microbiome

(click on the circle to switch between Balanced & Imbalanced


Just as with humans, a cat's gut microbiome "is imbalanced when it’s missing good bacteria, has too many harmful bacteria, or doesn’t have enough diversity. When the gut is out of balance, immune functions stop working properly, making allergic reactions much more likely to occur. Factors like disease, age, diet, and medications—especially antibiotics—can cause this kind of imbalance in your cat’s gut." (KittyBiome, 2023)

Missing Good Bacteria

Too Many Harmful Bacteria

Not Enough Diversity


Like humans, cats can develop environmental and seasonal allergies - and for the same reason:

"Environmental allergies mean your cat is allergic to pollen (from trees, grasses, or weeds), molds, dust, mildew, dander, dust mites, or other inhaled allergens. The list of potential allergens is very long, and varies depending on which plants are found in your climate.

"Usually, symptoms occur due to inhaling these allergens, but direct skin contact with allergens can also cause symptoms. Just like environmental allergies in humans, symptoms tend to be seasonal. But symptoms may worsen and become year-round over time.

"The gut microbiome is involved in allergies because 70%–80% of immune cells live in the gut. So if your cat suffers from allergy symptoms, rebalancing their gut microbiome can help. (emphasis added)

"So what is the gut microbiome? It’s the community of bacteria, fungi, and other microbes that live in your cat’s digestive tract and are essential for good health." (Bond, 2024)

When your cat’s gut microbiome is out of balance, your cat can develop allergies. An allergy is an exaggerated immune response that causes uncomfortable symptoms like itchy skin, hives, sneezing, watery eyes, and recurring ear infections. Common allergy triggers include pollen, insect bites, and mold spores




People who have a cat allergy are surprised they don’t have bad reactions to my cats – even when they pet them. A house guest with both asthma and a strong cat allergy woke up after several hours sleeping almost nose to nose with one of my cats. Both house guest and cat were fine.

This is the story of my current cats, George and Edison, and how I learned to fix their gut microbiomes:

I adopted my sweet boy cat George when he was 4 months old & quickly discovered he had a urinary tract condition called feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD), which can be fatal. The vet insisted he needed to be on a lifetime diet of a very expensive, special, low ash diet + a pharmaceutical called Prazosin, which relaxed him so much he became a little zombie without energy or zest for life. And, on that food & drug, he kept having painful FLUTD episodes, with blood in his urine, sometimes unable to pee & crying in pain. I'd have to whisk him to an emergency vet hospital, usually late in the evening.


As the episodes became more frequent, I decided to consult Brenda Tobin, a talented veterinary & human homeopath. She looked at the ingredients in the expensive low ash food & said he wasn't getting adequate nutrition eating it so recommended a grain free food at half the price that he liked even better. Brenda also recommended two nutritional supplements for him to improve his gut lining & balance his gut flora. I add them to his breakfast. And, lo & behold, he stopped having FLUTD episodes! And no one, even people with big cat allergies or asthma, is ever allergic to him or my girl cat Edison, who's on the same diet & supplements.


This new regimen also fits closely with what I understand about the gut microbiome & natural remedies in general


The next time George was at the vet's, I told her what I was doing for him and how it had stopped his FLUTD episodes & returned him to the land of the living. Her reaction was that what I was doing was dangerous - he needed to be put back on the special diet & the Prazosin immediately.

Apparently what I was saying was so far outside the paradigm she'd been taught that she couldn't take in that it was working.


About the benefits of homeopathy, from Brenda Tobin's site, WELLNESS MATTERS:

"Homeopathy is safe for babies, during pregnancies, for children, for people with sensitivities, as well as for animals, especially farm animals as the homeopathic remedies do not contaminate milk, eggs or meat. Homeopathy does not have any side-effects. The scientific preparation of homeopathic remedies does not include mass production, synthetic ingredients or colors and does not involve animal testing.  The remedies are safe and easy to use."

I'll add to those pluses that homeopathic appointments with Brenda cost considerably less than regular vet visits & homeopathic remedies cost $7-$10 for a tube of 80 pellets (a dose for a house cat = 1 pellet, ground & sprinkled on food.)

Brenda is in Michigan so we have Zoom consultations about George's health. I've never known him to be interested in computer screens before but during our initial consultation, George perched himself on the arm of a couch where he had a clear sight line to my laptop screen and intently watched her & listened to our conversation.

At one point, I had to go to another room to get some information she needed. While I was in there, I heard her talking to George & laughing in delight. This is a screen shot she took of what he was doing. He'd climbed up on my vacated chair & was peering intently at her.

When I returned to my laptop, he jumped down and sat in another spot where he could hear but not see her. And as soon as we said, "so we have a plan for helping George", he calmly walked away and lay down for a nap. It felt to both of us that George knew he was finally going to get some real help.

I assure you he reacts very differently at a regular vet's office and would be clearly tense & upset for a long time after those visits. And since cats with FLUTD are more likely to have an episode when they're stressed, he had trouble peeing at least once after coming back from the vet clinic.


George is a gentle, elegant, loving Russian Blue. Edison is an affectionate, bossy Bombay. Neither is likely a purebred. They're unrelated, both rescues.


George & Edison

In the wild, cats don’t eat grains like wheat, barley and corn so I feed my cats grain free, canned foods. I tried a raw diet but they didn't recognize it as food. I also tried two different types of human grade cat food that comes frozen. Smalls was one. I don't remember the other. They wouldn't eat those either. So now I feed them the grain free canned food the homeopathic vet suggested: Wellness Signature Selects. They both love it.

The two supplements I started giving George & Edison:

Gut Guard

"Made by Four Leaf Rover, Gut Guard is a veterinary formulated blend of soil-based probiotics and organic herbs that support a healthy gut lining in cats and dogs. It provides advanced care for stressed guts.

"Many foods, toxins, chemicals and drugs can damage the gut lining, making it more permeable. This causes digestive issues and allows toxins to escape the gut, resulting in chronic health and immune issues in dogs. 

Gut Guard supports a normal inflammatory response to everyday toxins by supporting the protective layers of the gut and mucous membrane.

  • Promotes a healthy gut lining: Supports a healthy intestinal lining and mucous membrane.

  • Strengthens gut health: Helps balance the gut flora.

  • Supports the immune system: A healthy gut contributes to a stronger immune response.

  • Free from harmful ingredients: No maltodextrin, artificial preservatives, colors, or flavors.

  • Developed by veterinarians: Formulated based on scientific research for maximum efficacy and safety." - Four Leaf Rover Gut Guard

A jar of Gut Guard costs $39.99 on Amazon. Dosing depends on your animal's weight. I add a small scoop to each cat's breakfast and a jar lasts about two months.

NuVet Plus® Feline Powder

NuVet Plus for cats is a holistic and natural immune system builder.

From NuVet Labs:

"At NuVet Labs® we know that a major cause of poor health in our beloved pets is the lack of proper nutrition with their diets. This is the main reason we developed NuVet Plus®. NuVet Plus® is the culmination of 8 years of research and development, formulated with the goal of creating a nutrient-rich formula that would surpass mere vitamin replenishment. Instead, the supplement provides full-spectrum nutritional support that focuses on boosting your pet’s immune system and overall health.

"Keeping your pet’s immune system strong is crucial in today’s environment. Household toxins, fertilizers, pesticides, and even many of today’s pet foods leave your pet’s immune system susceptible. Regular and even premium brand pet foods can contain toxins, bad bacteria, and “meat by-products” (an industry term for anything other than meat). Other common ingredients are fillers like corn, wheat and barley. These food ingredients and other environmental factors are prime sources for poor health.

"Our team of pet industry scientists, veterinarians, and medical specialists created NuVet Plus® to be a high-quality supplement that incorporates a precise formula of antioxidants, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, herbs and more. NuVet Plus® brings together vital ingredients that perform synergistically to help improve your pet’s health and keep them healthy. Our supplement is made using Natural ingredients that are formulated in a FDA Registered Facility using CGMP standards.

"NuVet Plus® ingredients and nutrients are compounded to maintain their integrity and bio-digestibility for complete cellular infusion. We use special “paddle dried,” whole chicken liver that provides vitamin potency, as well as a taste your pet will love. Please view our full Ingredient list and descriptions to understand how these essential elements can help your pet get started on a path to optimal health as well as help them maintain a quality life full of vigor, vitality, comfort, and energy."

The homeopathic vet arranged for me to order NuVet myself so I think the company is used to selling wholesale to vets. I set up an autoship subscription for the product and pay $$47.17/jar, which lasts about 2 months giving each cat a scoopful in their breakfasts. (I just went to the NuVet site. It looks like anyone can order directly from NuVet Labs now.)


Adding these two supplements to my cats' diet has been expensive but worth it. The cost of vet visits and veterinary medicines is through the roof. I'm happy to report my cats haven't been sick since they've been on these supplements.

Average Costs for Human & Veterinary Care in 2019


A Novel Approach to Managing Allergies to Cats

"Discover how a nutritional approach can help reduce allergens on the cat before they can trigger a reaction in cat-allergic people. A nutritional approach can neutralize the major cat allergen (Fel d 1) in a cat’s saliva, before it spreads to the environment.can help reduce allergens on the cat before they can trigger a reaction in cat-allergic people. A nutritional approach can neutralize the major cat allergen (Fel d 1) in a cat’s saliva, before it spreads to the environment.

"Anti-Fel d 1 IgY are naturally produced by chickens who share their environment with cats (e.g., farms with chickens and free-roaming cats) and transferred to their eggs.

"Egg-based IgY ingredients have been used safely in human and veterinary medicine. The egg product ingredient containing anti-Fel d 1 IgY is safe for cats, based on a comprehensive safety study that fed an egg product ingredient with multiple levels of anti-Fel d 1 IgY, including levels many times higher than those used in our efficacy studies.

"This approach maintains normal allergen production by the cat, without affecting the cat’s overall physiology."  

-Purina Institute (2), Undated


If you're okay with feeding your pet grains and dry food, you could try Purina's Pro Plan High Protein cat food LIVECLEAR formula. It uses IgY to neutralize Fel D1 and is available in a variety of flavors .

From Purina:

"LIVECLEAR is the first and only cat food with the power to reduce cat allergens simply and safely by neutralizing Fel D 1, a common allergen in cat saliva, using a key protein from eggs

"Discovered through over a decade of research, Pro Plan LIVECLEAR cat food significantly reduces the major allergen in cat hair and dander by an average of 47 percent starting in the third week of feeding.

"Safe and nutritious adult digestive dry cat food is fortified with guaranteed live probiotics for digestive and immune health

"Try LIVECLEAR digestive cat food risk free, and know it's part of the Pro Plan SPECIALIZED product line of targeted formulas." (Purina, undated)

Ingredients in Purina ProPlan LIVECLEAR Salmon & Rice:

Salmon, Rice, Corn Gluten Meal, Poultry By-Product Meal, Wheat Flour, Dried Egg Product, Beef Fat Preserved With Mixed-tocopherols, Soy Protein Concentrate, Fish Meal, Liver Flavor, Potassium Chloride, Chicory Root Inulin, Calcium Carbonate, Phosphoric Acid, Salt, Caramel Color, Vitamins [Vitamin E Supplement, Thiamine Mononitrate (Vitamin B-1), Niacin (Vitamin B-3), Vitamin A Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate (Vitamin B-5), Riboflavin Supplement (Vitamin B-2), Vitamin B-12 Supplement, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B-6), Folic Acid (Vitamin B-9), Vitamin D-3 Supplement, Biotin (Vitamin B-7), Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex (Vitamin K)], Choline Chloride, Taurine, Minerals [Zinc Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Calcium Iodate, Sodium Selenite], L-lysine Monohydrochloride, Dried Bacillus Coagulans Fermentation Product. A460219


"A vaccine targeting Fel d 1 in cats will affect the allergic response at the first possible point of intervention by inducing Fel d 1–specific antibodies in the animal. These antibodies will bind endogenous Fel d 1 and thus decrease or neutralize its allergenic effect in human subjects." (Jennings et al, 2019)

Fel-CuMVVT in the graphic below is the compound that the Swiss company Saiba markets as HypoCat, their vaccine to neutralize Fel D1 in cats. It was developed through a collaboration between researchers from the Latvian Center for Biomedical Research and Sciences in Riga and the Veterinary School at the University of Zurich, working with scientists from the Functional Center for Genomics in Zurich.

HypoPet AG was founded as a spin-off company from the University of Zürich in 2013. The company is now called Saiba Animal Health AG.

"Fel d 1, a cat protein secreted into saliva and tears and found on pelt, is the principle allergen to which cat allergy sufferers react. Indeed, more than 80% of cat allergic patients have potent allergy-inducing IgE antibodies against this protein. It is known that decreasing exposure of allergic humans to Fel d 1 has a significant benefit on symptoms and health. Our innovative approach is to intervene “at the source“ i.e. lower allergenic Fel d 1 on the cat itself." (Saiba, 2024)

Using the principle of the HypoCat vaccine. Saiba is also developing a HypoDog vaccine against dog allergy in humans.

"HypoDog™ is our product concept for reducing the allergenicity of canine allergens on the dog itself by vaccinating the dog with our virus-like particle conjugate vaccine. By producing anti-allergen antibodies in the dog, we aim to reduce allergy and asthma symptoms caused by dogs in humans. It is our goal to save dog owners from the difficult decision to give away their beloved pet due to dog allergy or live with the health consequences of their allergy. Our HypoDog™ project is currently in the early phase of lead generation. We will be able to leverage many of the learning from the HypoCat™ project to facilitate development of HypoDog™." (Saiba, 2024)



If you found this post interesting, please leave a comment. It would be much appreciated & would help spread the word.

The COMMENT box is at the bottom of the page, below the REFERENCES.


Akagawa, S. & Kaneko, K. (2022). Gut microbiota and allergic diseases in children. Allergology International, 71:3, 301-309. See:

Asthma & Allergy Foundation of America (2). (2024). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Defined. See:,-asthma-immunology-glossary/immunoglobulin-e-(ige)-defined

Autoimmune Association. (2024). Autoimmune Disease List. See:

Bond Vet. (2024).Allergies in Cats: Common Allergens & Allergy Treatments. See:

Cleveland Clinic. (2024), Allergies. See:

Hardin, J.R. (2016). Do You Want to Just Suppress Your Allergy Symptoms or Actually Fix What’s Causing Them? See:

Hardin, J.R. (2021). Autoimmunity: How It Develops Over Time. See:

Jennings, T. et al. (2019) Biologics and immunotherapyImmunization of cats to induce neutralizing antibodies against Fel d 1, the major feline allergen in human subjects. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, 144:1. See:,allergenic%20effect%20in%20human%20subjects.

Royal Society of Biology. (2024). Focus on ... Allergies. The Biologist. See:

Ruan, W. et al. (2020). Healthy Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome: Composition and Function After a Decade of Exploration. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 65:695–70. See:

Saiba. (2024). Medical and Veterinary Need. See:

Singh, N. et al. (2019). Inflammation and Cancer. Annals of African Medicine, 18:3, 121-126. See:

Watts, A.M. et al. (2021). The Gut Microbiome of Adults with Allergic Rhinitis Is Characterised by Reduced Diversity and an Altered Abundance of Key Microbial Taxa Compared to Controls. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 182:2, 94-105. See:

Wikipedia. (2/1/2024). Allergy to Cats. See:

 © Copyright 2024 Joan Rothchild Hardin. All Rights Reserved.

DISCLAIMER:  Nothing on this site or blog is intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.


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